Tag Archives: Canada Pension Plan

Splitting your pension on marriage breakdown

By Sheryl Smolkin

SHUTTERSTOCK
SHUTTERSTOCK

 

When a family splits up, pensions accrued by one or both spouses (including the Canada Pension Plan) and the family home may be the most valuable family assets. This blog discusses the Saskatchewan rules for pension credit-splitting of non-government pensions.

If both partners live in Saskatchewan their pensions (including the balance in their Saskatchewan Pension Plan) form part of family property. The Family Property Act establishes as a general rule that each legally married spouse, common-law spouse and same-sex spouse is entitled to an equal share of their family property, subject to various exceptions, exemptions and equitable considerations set out in the legislation. For example, property acquired before the commencement of the relationship is exempt from distribution.

The court may divide the family property or may order that one spouse pay the other spouse enough money to equalize their shares. Alternatively, the spouses may make an agreement about how to divide their property. The agreement will be binding if it is in writing and each spouse has received independent legal advice.  If a member has named the soon to be former spouse as a beneficiary, that person will continue to be the beneficiary unless the member files a change with the plan.

Under the Saskatchewan Pension Benefits Act, pensions can be divided in a number of ways:1

  • If the member of a defined benefit (DB) pension plan is not yet receiving a pension and is not eligible for an unreduced benefit, the other spouse can have a lump sum transferred from the plan to a locked-in retirement vehicle like a locked-in registered retirement savings plan or another registered pension plan. The lump sum is calculated by assuming the member terminates membership in the pension plan. This calculation typically results in a very low value for the pension (ignoring possible early retirement benefits, future increases, etc.).2
  • If the member of a DB pension plan is not yet receiving a pension and is eligible for an unreduced benefit, the non-member spouse can either take an immediate lump sum transfer (see 1 above) or he/she can defer the division and the non-member can also receive a pension when the member retires.
  • If the plan member spouse is receiving benefits from a DB plan or an annuity from the SPP, the non-member spouse will receive his/her portion of the pension payment directly from the administrator. By default this pension is only paid in accordance with the form of pension elected by the member at retirement (i.e. life only, joint and survivor benefit) and therefore may not continue after the member’s death. However, the plan has the option of converting the spouse’s share to a pension payable on his/her life (not all plans offer this option). In addition, the plan may offer the non-member spouse the option to take his/her portion as a lump sum.
  • RRSPs (both locked-in and not locked-in) and defined contribution (DC) pension plans (including the Saskatchewan Pension Plan) do not need to be valued on marriage breakdown.

This is because, unlike with a DB plan, RRSPs and DC pensions are simply tax-deferred investment accounts and so the value at any point in time is equal to the account balance. For this reason, a valuation is not necessary to determine the pre-tax value for these assets.

However, in many cases, a proper income tax adjustment should be calculated. For more details on the reason for the income tax adjustment, see the question ‘Does the value of a pension have to be adjusted to reflect income tax?’ pension valuation frequently asked questions on the BCH Actuarial Services Inc. website.

Locked-in DC plan balances are subject to the same transfer restrictions as lump sum transfers from a DB plan described in 1 and 2 above.

During separation or divorce, either you or your spouse can transfer existing RRSPs to the other, without being subject to tax, provided that:

  • You are living apart when property and assets are settled; and
  • You have a written separation agreement or a court order.

Note that federally regulated pension plans (i.e. banks, airlines, rail) may not divide the pension in the same manner as mentioned above and may only allow the division options available under the federal Pension Benefits Standards Act.

Under the federal Pension Benefits Standards Act, up to 100% of the benefits earned during the relationship can be assigned to the spouse. If a portion of the member’s pension benefits are assigned to the spouse, the non-member spouse is deemed to have been a member of the pension plan and have terminated their membership in the plan.

Most federal pension plans have established administrative policies as to how the non-member spouse can receive their share of the pension, however, typically they will have the choice of an immediate lump sum transfer or a deferred pension in the plan if the member is not retired and they will receive a pension from the plan if the member is retired  (the plan may offer a lump sum option and they may convert the spouse’s pension to one payable for their lifetime). For more information, click here.

Federal government pensions are divided in accordance with Pension Benefits Division Act which only allows an immediate lump sum transfer from the pension plan to the non-member spouse. For more information, click here.

1. This blog is based in part on information provided on the website of BCH Actuarial Services Inc. and the material is reprinted with permission. In all cases of marriage breakdown you should consult with a family lawyer and/or an independent actuary who will advise you regarding the laws and actuarial valuations that apply to your situation.

2. A division of a pension on marriage breakdown must not reduce the member’s commuted value to less than 50% of the member’s commuted value prior to the division.

Nov 25: Best from the blogosphere

By Sheryl Smolkin

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Today we report on a series of interesting blogs with no particular theme.

If reality shows like Income Property have you thinking about whether or not you should buy and rent out part of your house to help cover the mortgage, you may want to read Sean Cooper’s blog 5 Lessons Learned as a First Time Landlord on Million Dollar Journey.

There is a lot of media coverage lately about the merits of buying index funds to keep fees down and ultimately earn more than if you invest your savings in actively traded mutual funds. On Boomer & Echo, Robb Engen says active investing may not be dead yet in  Score One For Active Management? Check Out These Index Beating Funds.

Every dollar counts when you retire, so you want to make sure you get everything that’s coming to you from the Canada Pension Plan. But on Retire Happy, Jim Yih says that of the CPP audits that he has conducted in the past six months, almost half of the clients were receiving less than they were entitled to because not all earnings were included in the pension calculation. He has suggestions how you can ensure you are being paid the correct amount of CPP.

My Own Advisor gives a Financial Literacy month primer on Old Age Security benefits and offers his controversial wish for OAS:  keep it afloat but overhaul this sacred cow so any individual senior making $70,000 or more is ineligible for OAS benefits.

And finally, on Brighter Life, Kevin Press asks, Should we worry about seniors living in poverty? Answering his own question, he says that although one in five Canadians is worried about being able to cover basic living expenses in retirement, we live in a country considered a world leader in the fight against senior citizen poverty.

Do you follow blogs with terrific ideas for saving money that haven’t been mentioned in our weekly “Best from the blogosphere. Share the information with us on http://wp.me/P1YR2T-JR and your name will be entered in a quarterly draw for a gift card.

Nov 4: Best from the blogosphere

By Sheryl Smolkin

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Within the last few weeks the push to expand the Canada Pension Plan has been gathering steam in Ontario and PEI. Here are some articles from the mainstream media that will bring you up to speed on the arguments pro and con.

Push to expand Canada Pension Plan gaining steam

Grow the CPP – A better way to save | Canadian Labour Congress

CPP expansion would be too late for poor retired Boomers: study …

Time to put Flaherty on the spot | Toronto Star

CFIB: Canada can’t afford CPP expansion | Financial Post

But I really like Tim Stobbs’ take on the argument that we can’t expand CPP because higher payroll taxes will kill jobs. On Canadian Dream: Free at 45, he says, “Raising a tax won’t kill jobs…it will likely shift some around, but not remove them from the total.  So don’t hide behind that as an excuse to avoid changing a program that will help the majority of people save for retirement.”

But even if CPP is expanded, it will take a generation or more for Canadians to realize the full benefits of an enhanced program. That’s why you need to save and invest on your own. Find out how to maximize your savings for retirement and other objectives in 5 Financial Principles from a 34 Year Old Millionaire Investor.

If you have a workplace pension and are wondering about whether or not you should also contribute to an RRSP, take a look at this archived blog from Gail Vaz-Oxlade.

And as the year comes to an end, many of us will be faced with the dreaded performance review. On Brighter Life, Gerald McGroarty offers 10 tips to help make your year-end appraisal an occasion for celebration, not frustration.

Do you follow blogs with terrific ideas for saving money that haven’t been mentioned in our weekly “Best from the blogosphere. Share the information with us on http://wp.me/P1YR2T-JR and your name will be entered in a quarterly draw for a gift card.

October 28: Best from the blogosphere

By Sheryl Smolkin

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This week we have random posts from some of our favourite bloggers that consider how you can save for retirement, invest your savings and spend your money after retirement.

Robb Engen on Boomer & Echo thinks that many media money makeovers are unrealistic, and that we really need to prioritize our financial goals. He shares his portrait of the ideal saver.

When it comes to spending and saving money, for many of us monthly mortgage payments take the biggest chunk out of our earnings. From the archives of the Canadian Finance blog, Nelson Smith offers 6 ways to save thousands on your next mortgage.

Saving is not enough. You have to invest your money in a way that both minimizes risk and maximizes growth of your account. A Young and Thrift blogger explains how he finally overcame his inertia and invested the $100,000 cash he had in his accounts. Spoiler alert: He topped up his TFSA and RRSP and then invested in ETFs.

But the Canadian Capitalist says we can learn a thing or two on how to invest our own money from the manner in which the CPPIB invests our surplus Canada Pension Plan contributions.

And finally, however much you save and whatever your plans are, Kevin Press tells us how you choose to spend your retirement will be a compromise. That’s because recent Sun Life research revealed seven ways men and women disagree about retirement.

Do you follow blogs with terrific ideas for saving money that haven’t been mentioned in our weekly “Best from the blogosphere. Share the information with us on http://wp.me/P1YR2T-JR and your name will be entered in a quarterly draw for a gift card.